On July 13, 2002, a series of lightning storms ignited five fires in southwest Oregon’s rugged river-rich Kalmiopsis region. Four of the fires eventually became the known as the Biscuit Fire. Unlike the other two large fires of 2002, the Biscuit Fire destroyed few structures and took no lives. Nonetheless it became the political football of the timber industry and Bush Administration.
The Biscuit Fire’s large size was pre-determined
While in overall acreage it’s said to be one of the largest fires in Oregon’s history, the Biscuit Fire’s ultimate area was pre-determined by the placement of fire lines, along ridges and existing roads, and through the agency’s burning of the national forest land between the pre-determined fireline and the actual fire. On the east side alone, an independent study estimated 100,000-acres were “blackened” as a fire suppression strategy.
Nor were the deliberately ignited fires designed to mimic natural fires. They often burned hot and in several instances got out of control and required additional suppression activities and more fire lines. In an August 20, 2002 article, AP reported that the Forest Service was using helicopters to drop flammable ping pong balls (essentially napalm) on the scattered unburned islands in a 50,000-acre burnout area on the northeastern flank of the fire. In short, except for the initial lightning strikes, there was little natural about most of the Biscuit Fire.
Five fires with the Florence Fire the most problematic
Two of the five July 13th fires were in the Kalmiopsis Wilderness. One of those, the Carter Fire, was contained at about 20 acres. The other, the Florence Fire, began in the same section where another lighting caused ignition in the year 2000 (the China Fire) was held to 5.2 acres at a cost of $22,000.
Another 2000 lightning caused fire, also named Biscuit, began one section over from the 2002 Biscuit Fire. It was held to 4 acres at a cost of $30,550.00. The size of the 2002 Biscuit Fire was not about the inability to access the fires. Fires in almost the same areas had been suppressed two years earlier and held to small acreages at a relatively low cost. In fact, the most remote of the five original Biscuit fires—the Carter Fire—was contained in a few days.
The Florence Fire was the most problematic of the Biscuit Complex fires. On August 7, 2002, the Florence fire had burned through 243,836 acres and the three other remaining fires to the south, 41,897 acres.
The Biscuit Fire was primarily a weather-driven fire
Unlike in Colorado, the weather, is seldom raised as a major driver of big wildfires in Southwest Oregon. Instead, the “too many trees” syndrome is seen as the as the primary culprit. We need lean from other fire case studies—such as those for the large Colorado fires— to include weather, as the most significant driver of large wildland fires.
Unfortunately today, the role of weather is still not often part of the discussion around the Biscuit fire. However, we do know that between July 9 and 13 of 2002, there were record high temperatures and that the area of Southwest Oregon where the Siskiyou National Forest is located was experiencing uncharacteristically high fire danger indices.
On July 12 through 15 there were 1200 lightning strikes in Oregon resulting in 375 fires, with 245 on federal lands in southwest Oregon. The first set of lightning storms, on July 12th, missed Josephine and Curry Counties, but not the storm of July 13th.
At a Cave Junction fire information meeting, the Forest Service’s fire behavior specialist said the Florence fire’s “huge run on July 28th and 29th was caused by a weather anomaly that created strong northwesterly winds with extremely low humidity.” He said weather events like that rarely happened before fall or winter.
Another Forest Service official explained that the Florence Fire was a terrain driven event, with the fire seeking narrow places as it made a 2 1/2 mile run up the Illinois River Canyon from Oak Flat. But these accounts are considered anecdotal because the behavior of the two fires (still Florence and Biscuit at that time) and the terrain they encountered are not found in accounts of the fire and were not factored into the U.S. Forest Service’s analysis.
According to the agency’s Biscuit Fire Chronology, on July 26th the Florence fire was estimated at around 16,000-acres and the Sour Biscuit fires at 3,700-acres.
On July 30th the fires had grown to an estimated 141,650-acres and 33, 287-acres respectively. During that period one Forest Service official described the Florence Fire as sending huge smoke plumes thousands of feet into the air, which then collapsed in on themselves, exploding and sending flames as much a mile ahead of the fire itself.
Lessons from Colorado
Why does all this matter? In Colorado they’re working toward answering this question. In 2002, then Representative Mark Udall immediately called for an inquiry into the Hayman Fire. As a Senator in 2010, for the Fourmile Canyon Fire he made the same request.. The two resulting case studies provide an important body of knowledge about fire behavior during extreme weather conditions and about the efficacy of fuels treatment during weather driven fire events . See the U.S. Forest Service’s 2002 Hayman Fire Case Study and Preliminary Findings Fourmile Canyon Assessment Team. Here are some key findings of the latter:
- Large fires burn under high winds and low relative humidity … when suppression efforts are ineffective.
- The changes in fire activity in this area were primarily a result of changing weather (increases in humidity and decreases in wind, see figure 28) and topography (northerly aspect) rather than because of changes in forest structure and composition as a result of a fuel treatment.
- Given the inevitability of future wildfires and thus wildfires with extreme burning conditions that overwhelm fire protection, focusing on reducing home ignition potential is the key to preventing WUI fire disasters.
- In some cases, treated stands appeared to burn more intensely than adjacent untreated stands, perhaps because of additional surface fuels present as a result of the thinning.
- 83% of home destruction was associated with surface fire and consistent with other WUI fire disasters. This indicates survival or loss of homes exposed to wildfire flames and firebrands (lofted burning embers) is not determined by the overall fire behavior or distance of firebrand lofting but rather, the condition of the Home Ignition Zone (HIZ) – the design, materials and maintenance of the home in relation to its immediate surroundings within 100 feet.
- A critical finding was that most landowners surveyed prior to the fire did not believe that characteristics of their home and immediate surroundings were significant factors influencing the likelihood of a wildfire damaging their property within the next five years. These perceptions are refuted in the scientific literature and the home ignition assessment within this report.
Southwest Oregon escaped the tragedies experienced in Colorado—the significant loss of homes and life—but can we learn from case studies done in Colorado?
The emerging science of post-fire recovery and the dangers of disproving long established myths
Long after the ground had cooled and most of the controversial post-fire Biscuit timber sales had been clearcut, those promoting post-fire logging as necessary for forest recovery fanned the flames again. This time, it was their attempt to squelch the 2006 myth busting findings of a team of Oregon State University researchers about to be published in the prestigious journal Science.
The short report generated its own political and scientific firestorm, that included two congressional hearings, countless discussions around academic freedom and a government investigation. The controversy even has it’s own Wikipedia entry Lead author of the report, Dan Donato, described it this way in High Country News:
We wrote a paper. We challenged some widespread assumptions, specifically that there’s a lack of natural regeneration after a big fire. The Biscuit Fire was actually being put up as the poster child, and we were sitting on two full years of data that showed not only were seedlings establishing, they were surviving. So we felt like if we were going to have a fully informed public dialogue, it was our responsibility to get those numbers out. And it wasn’t well received by everybody.
Nonetheless their research has stood the test of time and been confirmed by other scientists.
Dispelling the myths surrounding the Biscuit fire isn’t about find blame. It’s about trying to gain a better understanding of fire in a botanically rich and geologically complex landscape in a changing climate. We need to better understand the effects of fire and of post fire logging on the hauntingly beautiful rivers of the Kalmiopsis.,That discussion should have started a decade ago but it didn’t.
An eye-witness account of the fire that threatened the Illinois Valley
No it was not the Biscuit fire that threatened the Illinois Valley in 2002, It was the combination extreme weather, the Florence fire and a huge fire set by U.S. Forest Service fire fighters. The latter breached fire lines and burned into an area at Oak Flat, which had made it through the fire a few days earlier.
The relatively few residents along the Illinois River Road, from Oak Flat to Forest Service boundary were told to evacuate. For safety, guards were placed at the perimeter roads. The two civilian witnesses—who chose to stay and defend their home and those of their neighbors at Oak Flat—tells a story about the fearsome weather-driven fire that burned up the Illinois River Canyon toward Cave Junction that’s different from the official account that lacks detail and documentation. One account says that the backburn the Forest Service set was 34,000 acres, larger than the fires that were being fought already.
This is an excerpt from Gayle and Jerry Sorensen’s eye witness account of events in July 2002, originally published in Forest Magazine, a publication of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics.
At this point in our story, we believed Oak Flat had survived the Florence Fire with little loss. Total damage from the wildfire itself was limited to water lines that serve the Quintaro and Maynard properties and our home, plus a few small structures at Golda’s property.
I also lost my lumber, but that was from a government-ignited fire. We got on the radiophone to tell our neighbors that the worst was behind us: the fire had come, gone and done little damage; mopping up was all that was left to do.
Firefighters returned to Oak Flat at about 10A.M. They resumed cutting brush near the river. That afternoon, a real hot scorcher, firefighters set backfires behind our property and burned up the rest of our water line over to No Name Creek.
Firefighters resumed work while fallers cut down hazard trees. That evening, I went up the ridge to inspect the area backfired the previous day. A fire commander had told me earlier, before they quit for the day, that the line they were building to stop the backfire from coming back down the ridge to Oak Flat had been lost.
July 27th beginning at 6:00 a.m.
I saw the backfire had exploited the breach in the line and was creeping slowly down the ridge back toward Oak Flat. Had firefighters jumped on the backfire early that morning or the previous night, I believe it could have been controlled. I bulldozed a fire trail along the upper part of our property to try to slow the backfire down.
A large crew of government firefighters arrived at 10 A.M. They held their regular safety meeting for about an hour (the normal and most effective time for firefighting is during the night or at first light, when the fire is cool). Our daughter arrived at noon with a new water tank and pipe so we could rebuild our water line.
About an hour later, as the afternoon heated up, the backfire came rushing down the hillside. It burned up much of our private timber and destroyed the Huerta, Egan and Lloyd homes, as well as our newly installed water lines and tanks. Firefighters retreated to our property. A helicopter dumped water until propane tanks started exploding. Firefighters retreated along the upper logging road in the evening.
The backfire then ran south and east up the Illinois River and eventually overran the McCaleb Ranch Boy Scout Camp, burning virtually the entire length of the Illinois River from Oak Flat to the national forest boundary north of Selma—a distance of fourteen miles.
In addition to the structures destroyed at Oak Flat, the backfire wiped out private timber holdings along the way and thousands of acres of national forest. Emphasis added.
Sorry, but the edition with the Sorensen’s full account of their harrowing experience during the Florence fire is no longer available online.
Passionate about the Kalmiopsis | Seeing the real beauty
George Sexton, conservation director at KS Wild and a friend of the Kalmiopsis, hasn’t been put off by the post-fire landscape, He’s spent many days in the Kalmiopsis backcountry over the last decade. On the approaching 10th anniversary of the lightning storm that initiated the five fires that became the Biscuit fire, he’s calling for a better understanding of what happened in back in 2002. He writes in the May 6, 2012 Medford Mail Tribune:
It’s been nearly 10 years since the July 2002 lightning storm that sparked the 500,000 acre Biscuit fire. For many of us in Southern Oregon, the Biscuit fire was a defining event — beloved forests were drastically altered, the politics of logging and wildlands protection were turned on their heads and the realities of living in a fire-evolved landscape came home to roost.
… Wth the passage of time it is now possible to look back more objectively at Biscuit and the political firestorm that followed in its wake.
Read George’s guest opinion here.
It’s January 4, 2018. We’ve made some badly needed edits to this quickly written five year old post because burying the myths of the Biscuit Fire has become more important than ever in the wake of the 2017 Chetco Bar fire.
Despite almost a decade of research specific to the Biscuit fire area, most published in peer reviewed scientific journals, local office holders are still stuck in the rhetoric of the past. People who’ve never walked accross the
There’s a whole body of science that’s been published since 2006 and the initial publication of Dan Donato, Joe Fontaine,
Because so much of the Kalmiopsis Wildlands was affected by the Biscuit Fire, we want to help with that “objective look back” in the hopes of putting to rest the politically driven myths and gaining a better understanding of a landscape shaped by fire, geology and time.
- Timothy Ingalsbee , PhD – Collateral Damage: The Environmental Effects of Firefighting: The 2002 Biscuit Fire Suppression Actions and Impacts. This is a very important report for understanding the Kalmiopsis Wilderness and the North and South Kalmiopsis Roadless Area. If the above link does not work the report is found on the Firefighters United for Safety, Ethics, and Ecology’s publications page
- High Country News “Weathering the academic storm” a 2006 interview with lead author of the paper publish in Science that sparked so much controversy “Post-Wildfire Logging Hinders and Increases Wild Fire Risk.”
- High Country News “Study questions value of post-fire logging.”
- The Wilderness Society’s Summary of the Hayman Fire.
- Pacific Biodiversity Institute’s Analysis of the Ingalsbee Fires.
- The USDA’s Hayman Fire Case Study.
- High Country News, “Monster fires have become the new normal” by Roy Keene and Tim Hermach, June 20, 2011
- USDA Forest Service 2011, “Fourmile Canyon: Living with wildfire.”
- USDA Forest Service 2011, “Fourmile Canyon Fire Preliminary Findings. “
 The 2002 Hayman Fire in Colorado was 137,000+ acres. It destroyed 133 homes, 1 commercial building and 466 outbuildings. The area of the Hayman Fire has numerous roads. It’s one example that the presence of roads, when wildland fires are weather driven, provide little help. The 2002 Rodeo-Chedeski Fire in Arizona was 467,000 acres in size. It burned in a heavily logged and roaded landscape (2146 miles of road/3 miles of road per square mile) landscape, with dense tree plantations. The roads were not effective fire breaks but they did provide access to the people who started the fire.
 Information on the China Fire is from Forest Service Wildland Fire Reports acquired through the Freedom of Information Act.
 Description of fire conditions is from the USDA Forest Service’s 2002 Biscuit Fire Chronology (October 11, 2002).